Marina Mavrodieva
Center for Assessment in Preschool and School Education
Tatyana Angelova
Adriana Damyanova
Sofia University

Language and Literacy

The national language of Bulgaria is Bulgarian, a South Slavonic language that is spoken throughout the country and is the official language of administration, public relations and services, and instruction in schools. Other languages used in the country include Turkish and Romany. In upper secondary school, intensive foreign language instruction includes instruction of multiple subjects in the foreign language.

Bulgaria is rich in literary history dating back to the ninth century. The old Slavonic script created by Cyril and Methodius was first accepted and developed in Bulgaria. Since the foundation of the first Bulgarian state more than 1,300 years ago, learning and enlightenment have been constant characteristics of the Bulgarian people. The first schools in Bulgaria were established in the years 866 (the Preslav School) and 888 (the Ochrid School). The first Bulgarian newspaper was published in the mid-1800s.

In 2014, there were 295 newspapers with a combined circulation of about 316,000. In addition, 635 journals with a circulation of 18,400 and 7,515 books were published. Bulgaria has 48 public libraries with more than 34.2 million volumes and 235,000 registered users.1